## Change in temperature when there is a change in state

### Experiment Name:

To determine the change in temperature when there is a change in state.

• Ice cubes
• Beaker
• Thermometer
• Burner

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Exert little ice cubes in a beaker. Enter the thermometer into ice cubes in the beaker.
• Witness the interpretation of the thermometer. Now start heating the beaker putting it on a burner.
• Recognize varieties in the thermometer indicating every 1 minute till the ice totally melts and gets converted into water.

### Special Precautions:

Carry out the experiment under the special guidance of your laboratory instructor else you can encounter minor accidents.

### What Was Learnt:

You will recognize that the warmth of ice at the origin is equal to or below 0 degrees C. If the warmth of ice is below 0 degrees C, it goes on adjusting till it stretches 0 degrees C. When ice starts melting, you will see no fluctuation in temperature though you are furnishing heat continuously.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

Yes, you can try to conduct this experiment at home but provided you are under parental guidance.

## Boiling of water

### Experiment Name:

To determine the method by which the water boils.

• Beaker
• Water
• Burner
• Thermometer

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Use a beaker of water, put it on the burner.
• Write the interpretations of thermometer for every 2 minutes.
• You will see that the warmth of the water rises continuously until it reaches 100°C. Exceeding 100°C no additional rise of temperature of the water is observed.

### Special Precautions:

You must carry out this experiment under the special guidance of your laboratory instructor to achieve the desired results.

### What Was Learnt:

At 100 degrees C, though the amount of heat proceeds, the warmth does not stretch further. We also examine a lot of bubbling at the surface of the water at 100 degrees C. This is what we call boiling of water. 100 degree is the boiling point of water.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

Yes, this experiment can be done at home with the special parental guidance.

## Condensation

### Experiment Name:

To determine the condensation process which is also called the warming process.

### Required Equipment And Material:

• Glass Tumbler
• Cold water

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Put a glass tumbler on the desk. Drain cold water up to half its height.
• You will see that water droplets will form on the outer surface of the glass.

### Special Precautions:

You must only conduct this experiment under the special guidance of your laboratory assistant.

### What Was Learnt:

We understand that the warmth of the enclosing air is greater than the warmth of the cold water. Air includes water molecules in the formation of vapor. When the particles of water in the air, while their action, thump the covering of the glass tumbler which is cool; they dissipate their kinetic energy which reduces their warmth and they get transformed into droplets.

The heat lost by the water particles in the air is earned by the molecules of the glass tumbler. Henceforth the normal kinetic energy of the glass particles rises.

In change, the steam is transported from glass particles to the water particles in the glass. In this method, the average kinetic energy of water particles in the glass tumbler increases. Therefore we can presume that the warmth of the water in the glass increases. This method is called ‘condensation’. It is a warming method.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

Yes, you can easily conduct any experiment at home. Make sure to take the help from your parents whenever required.

## Find the specific heat of a given solid

### Experiment Name:

To find the specific heat of a given solid.

• Calorimeter
• Thermometer
• Stirrer
• Water
• Steam heater
• Wooden box
• Lead shots

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Estimate the quantity and mass of the calorimeter along with stirrer. The bulk of the calorimeter that is mass, m1 = ……………………
• Now fill one-third of the volume of calorimeter with water. Estimate its mass and its temperature. Mass of the calorimeter plus water, m2 = ……………..
• Mass of the water, m2 –m1 =
• The temperature of water in the calorimeter, T1 = ………..
• Get a few lead shots and put them in hot water or steam heater. Boil them up to a temperature 100 degrees C. Let this temperature be T2.
• Transport the hot lead shots immediately into the calorimeter (with least loss of heat). You will see that the mixture descends to a certain temperature after some time.
• Estimate this temperature T3 and mass of the calorimeter along with contents (water and lead shots).
• Mass of the calorimeter along with contents, m3 = ………
• Mass of the lead shots, m3 – m2 = …………
• Since there is no loss of heat to surroundings, we can assume that the entire heat lost by the solid (lead shots) is transferred to the calorimeter and water to reach the final temperature.
• Let the specific heats of the calorimeter, lead shots and water be Sc, Sl, and Sw

### Special Precautions:

Make sure to calculate the masses accurately otherwise, you won’t get the desired outcome.

Also, make sure to conduct the experiment under the guidance of your lab instructor.

### What Was Learnt:

According to the method of mixtures, we know; Heat lost by the solid = Heat gain by the calorimeter + Heat gain by the water

(m3 – m2 )Sl (T2 -T3 ) = m1 Sc (T3 -T1 )+(m2 -m1 ) Sw(T3 -T1 )

[m1 Sc +(m2 -m1 )Sw] (T3 -T1 )

Sl = ––––––––––––––––––––––––

(m3 -m2 )(T2 -T3 )

Knowing the specific heats of calorimeter and water, we can calculate the specific heat of the solid (lead shots).

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

No, this experiment cannot be done at home. Hence, you only can conduct this in a laboratory.

## The rise of temperature in various conditions

### Experiment Name:

Determining the rising of temperature in various conditions.

• Water
• Small beaker
• Large beaker
• Heater
• Thermometer

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Take two containers like a beaker which should be of the same size and pour 200 ml of water in each of them.
• Now, warm the water in both the beakers till they achieve the same temperature.
• Now, drain the water from these two beakers into a bigger vessel resembling a beaker. Otherwise, you can use a beaker also.
• Immediately warm the water in one beaker to 90 degrees C and the other to 60 degrees C. Blend the water from these cups in a larger beaker.
• Now, get100 ml of water at 90 degrees C and 200 ml of water at 60 degrees C and combine the two of them.

### Special Precautions:

Make sure to mix properly otherwise you won’t get the desired results.

### What Was Learnt:

We can infer from the above experiment that temperature rises when water is heated at different conditions. This mainly happens due to the latent heat phenomenon.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

Yes, you can easily conduct this experiment at home under special parental guidance.

## The rise of temperature based on the size of beaker

### Experiment Name:

To determine the rise of temperature based on the size of the beaker or container.

### Required Apparatus And Material:

• Large beaker
• Small beaker
• Lab thermometer
• Water

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Take 250 ml of water in a beaker which is small and 1 liter of water in the other container which is the larger one, and write down their original temperature utilizing a thermometer (beginning temperatures should be identical).
• Now warm both containers till the warmth of water in the two beakers raises to 600
• Write down the boiling times needed to increase the warmth of water to 600 C in each beaker.

### Special Precautions:

You need not heat the beakers excessively as there can be minor accidents associated with this step.

### What Was Learnt:

You will mark that you require more rate to increase the temperature of water in the bigger beaker when associated with water in the small beaker. That implies that you require to provide more heat potential to water in a larger beaker (as there is a greater quantity of water) than water in a tiny beaker for the same variation in temperature.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

Yes, this experiment is also doable at home with proper parental guidance.

## Rise In Temperature Vs Nature Of Substance

### Experiment Name:

To determine the rise in temperature as per the nature of the substance.

### Required Apparatus And Material:

• Large jar
• Two boiling test tubes with single-holed corks
• Oil
• Laboratory thermometers
• Water

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Take a big or massive container like a jar filled with water and warm it up to 80 degrees Celsius.
• Obtain two boiling test tubes with single-holed corks.The test tubes must be identical. One of them is loaded with 50g of water and the additional with 50g of oil, both at normal room temperature.
• Interpolate two thermometers within the holes of the corks, one particular into two test tubes.
• Now fasten them to a counter stand and put them in a pot of hot water as shown in the figure.
• Remark the excerpts of thermometers every three minutes. Record the excerpts in your diary.

### Special Precautions:

Make sure to not heat the test tubes above the mentioned temperature and make sure to conduct the experiment under the guidance of your laboratory instructor.

### What Was Learnt:

We understand that the equivalent value of heat is provided to water and oil because they are stored in the jar of hot water for the same interim of time. We witness that the pace of rising in the warmth of the oil is greater than that of the rise in the warmth of the water. We infer that the pace of rising in temperature depends on the quality of the material.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

No, you should never conduct this experiment at home as there can be some unfortunate situations which you may be unable to overcome.

## Transfer of Energy

### Experiment Name:

To determine the gain and loss of energy by experimenting with water and oil.

### Required Equipment And Apparatus:

• A Cylindrical Glass Jar
• Water
• A Container
• Coconut Oil
• Two Thermometers

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• Use water in a bowl and warm it to 60°C. Take a circular see-through glass jar and fill moiety of it with this warm water.
• Much tenderly discharge coconut oil over the facade of the water. (Take care that the liquid and oil do not mix). Put a cover with two holes on the head of the glass jar.
• Take two thermometers and embed them through the openings of the cover in such a way that bulb of the one thermometer lies totally inside the water and other lies solely inside the coconut oil as shown in the figure.
• Now witness the interpretations of the two thermometers. The study of readings of the thermometer kept in water drops, while, during the same period, the reading examination of the thermometer kept in oil raises.

### Special Precautions:

You should only conduct this experiment under the special guidance of your laboratory guide.

### What Was Learnt:

From the foregoing analysis, it is obvious that water dissipates energy but oil augments energy; because of the temperature deviation betwixt the water and oil. Therefore some heat energy passes from water to oil. This proposes, the kinetic energy of the particles of the water drops while the kinetic energy of the particles of oil rises.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

No, it is not possible to conduct this experiment at home.

## Kinetic Energy in Motion

### Experiment Name:

To determine Kinetic energy in motion.

### Required Equipment And Material:

• Two Bowls
• Hot And Cold Water
• Food Colour

### Experiment Procedure And Steps:

• You need to take two bowls and fill each one with hot and cold water.
• After that, you need to sprinkle the food color on both the bowls.
• This is done to determine the motion of the grains.
• Notice the motion of the color grains on each bowl.
• You will notice that the grains move randomly and it will start jiggling more when sprinkled in hot water other than cold water.

### Special Precautions:

You need to make sure that the water is not too hot and it does not topple over the bowl. Otherwise, there can be a chance of getting burnt. On the other hand, this experiment should only be conducted in assistance of a laboratory instructor.

### What Was Learnt:

It is learned that all bodies possess kinetic energy when in motion. Here the water possesses kinetic energy and this can be clearly seen that the kinetic energy of hot water is more than the cold water. Hence, the food color grains jiggle more in hot water.

### Is this experiment Doable at home? (Yes/No):

No, it is not advised to carry out this experiment at home. If you think of trying this at home, you can only do it with a proper parental guidance.

## Activity Measure Temperature

### Experiment Name:

Measuring temperature with the help of a laboratory thermometer.

### Required Equipment And Material:

• Hot water
• cold water
• a beaker or a cup
• laboratory thermometer

### Experiment Procedure and Steps:

• Take two cups or beakers. Fill one of them with hot water and the other one with cold water.
• Observe the initial mercury level in the laboratory thermometer and note it down in your lab notebook.
• Now, dip it in both the beakers. Note the mercury level in each of the beakers and write it down in your notebook.
• Note the changes in the readings of the lab thermometer and note it down. You will notice the temperature will rise in case of hot water and the temperature will fall in case of cold water.

### Special Precautions:

You should conduct this experiment under the guidance of your laboratory instructor. No wonder you can conduct the experiment yourself, but it is prone to risk as hot water and mercury is involved. Therefore, it is advised to conduct the experiment under special care.

### What Was Learnt:

From the above-mentioned experiment, it was learned that you can detect the temperature of hotness and coldness with the help of a laboratory thermometer. It is clearly seen from the experiment that hot water shows a rising of mercury level and cold water shows the falling in mercury level.

### Is this experiment Doable at home?

No, it is not advised to practice this experiment at home as it involves a chance of risk. If the temperature is too high then the thermometer can burst sometimes. Therefore, it is advised to conduct the experiment only in a laboratory under the guidance of laboratory assistant.