# Behaviour of light ray travels from denser to rarer in Refraction of Light At Plane Surfaces – Class 10 Science Experiment

## Activity Name: Behaviour of light ray travels from denser to rarer in Refraction of Light At Plane Surfaces

### Activity Description:

This experiment involves using a metal disk with marked angles and two straws immersed in water. By adjusting the straws, students will observe how light rays bend away from the normal when traveling from a denser medium (water) to a rarer medium (air).

### Required Items:

1. Metal disk, protractor, transparent vessel, water, two straws.

### Step by Step Procedure:

1. Mark angles on the metal disk using a protractor.
2. Arrange two straws at the center of the disk, allowing them to rotate freely.
3. Adjust one straw to make an angle of 100 degrees.
4. Immerse half of the disk vertically in water.
5. Verify that the straw at 100 degrees is inside the water.
6. Look from the top of the vessel and adjust the other straw outside the water until both straws appear in a single straight line.
7. Take the disk out of the water and observe the two straws; they will not be in a straight line.
8. Measure the angle between the normal and the second straw and note the value in a table.
9. Repeat the procedure for various angles and find the corresponding angles of refraction, noting them in the table.
10. Use the data to calculate the refractive index of water.

### Experiment Observations:

• Light rays appear to be in a straight line when viewed from the top due to refraction.

### Precautions:

1. Avoid taking up this activity for angles of incidence greater than 48 degrees.
2. Handle the metal disk and straws carefully to avoid any damage.

### Lesson Learnt from Experiment:

When light travels from a denser medium (e.g., water) to a rarer medium (e.g., air), it bends away from the normal, and the angle of refraction (r) is greater than the angle of incidence (i).

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