Salt samples and classification in Refraction Of Light At Curved Surfaces – Class 10 Science Experiment

Chapter Name: Refraction Of Light At Curved Surfaces

Activity Name: Salt samples and classification in Refraction Of Light At Curved Surfaces

Activity Description:

In this experiment, various salt samples are collected, including sodium chloride, aluminum chloride, copper sulfate, sodium acetate, ammonium chloride, sodium hydrogen carbonate, and sodium carbonate. These salts are then dissolved in distilled water. The action of the resulting solutions is tested using litmus papers to determine their acidic, basic, or neutral nature.

The pH of each solution is also measured using pH paper (universal indicator). Based on the pH values obtained, the salts are classified into acidic, basic, or neutral categories. The experiment aims to identify the acids and bases used to form these salts.

Required Items:

  1. Black sketch pen
  2. Thick sheet of paper
  3. Cylindrical-shaped transparent vessel (glass tumbler)
  4. Water

Step by Step Procedure:

  1. Draw an arrow of length 4 cm on the sheet of paper using the black sketch pen.
  2. Place the empty cylindrical vessel on a table.
  3. Position the sheet of paper with the arrow behind the vessel in a way that the arrow mark is in a horizontal position.
  4. Look at the vessel from the other side and observe the image of the arrow.

Experiment Observations:

  • With the empty vessel, you will see a diminished (small-sized) image of the arrow.


  1. Ensure the arrow is drawn accurately on the paper for precise observations.
  2. Handle the glass tumbler with care to avoid any breakage or accidents.
  3. Make sure the vessel is clean and free from any distortions or impurities that could affect the observations.

Lesson Learnt from Experiment:

The experiment demonstrates how light undergoes refraction at curved interfaces when passing through different media, such as air and glass. When the vessel is empty, light refracts at the curved interface of the glass and air, resulting in a diminished image of the arrow. When the vessel is filled with water, the light refracts at the interface of the glass and water, leading to the formation of an inverted image.

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