Acid is strong or weak in Acids, Bases and Salts – Class 10 Science Experiment

Chapter Name: Acids, Bases and Salts

Activity Name: Acid is strong or weak in Acids, Bases and Salts

Activity Description:

This experiment aims to determine whether acids and bases are strong or weak by conducting an electric current through their dilute solutions.

The experiment involves using two beakers filled with dilute acetic acid (CH3COOH) and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) to test for acid strength. Then, dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and dilute ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) are used to test for base strength. Additionally, the use of a universal indicator to determine the strength of acids and bases is mentioned.

Required Items:

  1. Two beakers (A and B)
  2. Dilute acetic acid (CH3COOH)
  3. Dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl)
  4. Dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
  5. Dilute ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
  6. Apparatus used in Activity-7 (not specified in the text)

Step by Step Procedure:

  1. Take two beakers, labeled A and B.
  2. Fill beaker A with dilute acetic acid (CH3COOH) and beaker B with dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  3. Set up the apparatus used in Activity-7 (details not provided in the text) and pass an electric current through the solutions in the separate beakers.
  4. Observe the changes in the experiment and note the intensity of the bulb in each solution.
  5. Repeat the experiment using dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and dilute ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) instead of acids.
  6. Use a universal indicator to determine the strength of acids and bases. The universal indicator changes color at different concentrations of hydrogen ions in a solution.

Experiment Observations:

  • In the first part of the experiment, the bulb glows brightly in the HCl solution, indicating a high concentration of ions, and thus, it is a strong acid. In contrast, the bulb’s intensity is low in the acetic acid solution, suggesting fewer ions and making it a weak acid.
  • In the second part of the experiment, observations for bases (dilute NaOH and dilute NH4OH) are not mentioned in the provided text.
  • The text introduces the use of a universal indicator to determine the strength of acids and bases based on the color change at different hydrogen ion concentrations.

Precautions:

  1. Handle acids and bases with care, wearing appropriate safety gear (gloves and goggles).
  2. Be cautious while passing electric current through solutions to avoid electrical hazards.
  3. Follow the proper disposal guidelines for the chemical waste generated during the experiment.

Lesson Learnt from Experiment:

The experiment demonstrates that the strength of an acid or base can be determined by observing the brightness of a bulb in its solution when an electric current is passed through it.

A brighter bulb indicates a higher concentration of ions, making the acid or base stronger. Additionally, the use of a universal indicator allows for a more general and visual determination of the acidity or basicity of a solution based on color changes.

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