Effect of temperature on change of state in Matter Around Us – Class 9 Science Experiment

Activity Name: Effect of temperature on change of state in Matter Around Us

Activity Description:

This experiment explores the effect of temperature on the change of state of water from solid (ice) to liquid and then to gas (vapor). The aim is to observe the temperature changes during each stage of heating and melting.

Required Items:

1. Approximately 100g of ice
2. Beaker
3. Laboratory thermometer
4. Glass rod

Step by Step Procedure:

1. Take about 100g of ice and place it in a beaker.
2. Insert the bulb of a laboratory thermometer into the ice in the beaker to measure the temperature accurately.
3. Observe and note the initial temperature of the ice.
4. Begin heating the beaker slowly.
5. Record the change in temperature at regular intervals, such as every 30 seconds, as the ice starts to melt and the water temperature increases.
6. Continue heating until all the ice has melted and turned into water.
7. Now, insert a glass rod into the beaker containing water.
8. Continue heating the beaker until the water starts to boil and eventually all the water is vaporized into steam.
9. During the process of boiling, note the temperature at which the water remains constant for a while.

Experiment Observations:

1. The temperature of the ice gradually increases as it is heated.
2. During the melting process, the temperature remains constant at 0°C until all the ice has completely melted.
3. After the ice has melted, the temperature starts to rise again as the water is heated.
4. When the water starts boiling, the temperature remains constant at the boiling point of water, which is 100°C at atmospheric pressure.
5. After all the water has vaporized, the temperature starts to increase again.

Precautions:

1. Handle the beaker and heated items with care to avoid any accidents or burns.
2. Use appropriate safety equipment, such as gloves and goggles, while conducting the experiment.
3. Ensure that the glass rod and the beaker are clean and free from any contaminants.
4. Use a laboratory thermometer with a suitable range for measuring both the low and high temperatures involved.

Lesson Learnt from Experiment:

This experiment demonstrates the concept of changes in the state of matter due to the application of heat. It shows that during the change of state from solid to liquid and liquid to gas, the temperature remains constant until the entire substance has transformed.

This constant temperature during state change is known as the “melting point” and the “boiling point” for solid to liquid and liquid to gas transitions, respectively.

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