Formation of image by a pinhole in Reflection of Light By Different Surfaces – Class 10 Science Experiment

Chapter Name: Reflection of Light By Different Surfaces

Activity Name: Formation of image by a pinhole in Reflection of Light By Different Surfaces

Activity Description:

Formation of image by a pinhole in Reflection of Light By Different Surfaces - Class 10 Science Experiment

In this experiment, we explore the formation of an image using a pinhole camera. The pinhole camera is a simple optical device that uses a small hole to project an inverted image of an object onto a screen.

We investigate how the size of the hole affects the clarity of the image formed on the screen.

Required Items:

  1. Pinhole camera (can be made using a cardboard box)
  2. Candle
  3. Screen or white paper
  4. Drawing materials for the ray diagrams

Step by Step Procedure:

  1. Set up the pinhole camera by making a small hole in one side of the cardboard box.
  2. Place the candle on the opposite side of the pinhole.
  3. Place the screen or white paper on the side of the pinhole with the hole, where the image will be projected.
  4. Observe the flame of the candle through the pinhole camera and note the appearance of the image on the screen.
  5. Now, enlarge the hole of the pinhole camera.
  6. Observe the candle flame again and note the changes in the image formed on the screen.
  7. Using the observed results, draw ray diagrams to understand the formation of the image in both cases (small hole and big hole).

Experiment Observations:

  • With the small hole: The image formed on the screen will be sharper and more focused.
  • With the big hole: The image formed on the screen will be blurred and less defined.


  1. Handle the candle with care to avoid accidents.
  2. Be cautious with the pinhole camera, especially when enlarging the hole.
  3. Conduct the experiment in a dimly lit room for better observation.

Lesson Learnt from Experiment:

The experiment demonstrates that a smaller hole in the pinhole camera produces a clearer and more defined image, while a larger hole results in a blurred image. This phenomenon is due to the way light rays from different points on the object diverge and pass through the hole, creating a focused or unfocused image on the screen.

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